Fibromyalgia (FM) is a condition that is characterized by widespread, generalized pain “all over” the body that does not follow any specific anatomical pathway like the course of a nerve, muscle, or blood vessel. It is often diagnosed only after all other conditions have been eliminated by using various testing approaches such as blood tests, x-ray, CT or MRI Scans, and others.
Controversy exists between health care providers (HCP’s) as some believe that FM either doesn’t exist at all or if it does, it’s grossly over diagnosed while others feel most patients have some form or degree of FM. Because of this common split in beliefs, patients may be treated poorly by those non-believing HCP’s, which often alienates them from seeking further care for FM.
Recent literature suggests FM is disorder of “central pain processing” or, a specific situation where the pain threshold (the point where pain is felt) is reached sooner than what is normal. Fibromyalgia has been classified into 2 separate groups – primary and secondary FM. Primary FM is diagnosed when no known cause can be identified while secondary FM is related to a specific cause such as a disease or condition. Conditions that have been reportedly associated with FM include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), TMJ (jaw disorders), chronic low back pain, and headaches. There are genetic as well as environmental factors associated with FM.
Researchers have found that there is a strong familial component with 1st degree relatives where an 8 fold greater risk of developing FM compared to the general population exists. These people are also more likely to have one of the other associated conditions previously mentioned (IBS, TMJ, headaches). Environmental factors can lead to FM in 5-10% of the cases. Some of these include physical trauma such as car accidents, following infections such as parvovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Lyme disease.
Psychological stress, hormonal alterations such as hypothyroid, drug side effects, vaccination reactions and certain catastrophic events such as war are included in the “environmental factors” category. Gender differences include woman being 2-3 times more likely to suffer from FM than men.